New Mexico State Forestry Conservation Seedling Program

Seedling List

Seedlings offered by the New Mexico State Forestry Division

For more information, or to order the seedling, click on the seedling's name.

SPECIES HEIGHT GROWTH RATE COLD HARDINESS WATER NEEDS ALKALINITY TOLERANCE ELEVATION
*FLOWERING SHRUB PACKAGE varied Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Low-Moderate 6500- 10000
Penstemon strictus, Ribes cereum, etc. Package contains 14 Shrubby Cinquefoil, 14 Wax currant, 14 Rocky Mountain Penstemon, and 7 Mountain Snowberry. See individual species for more information. Pest Problems: None serious Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings
Sizes:
*FRUIT/BERRY SHRUB PACKAGE varied Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5500- 9000
Ribes cereum, Prunus virginiana, Amelanchi Package contains 14 Serviceberry, 14 Chokecherry, 14 NM Elderberry and 7 Wax Currant. For more information see individual seedling descriptions. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, windbreaks, erosion control, jams and jellies
Sizes:
*MIXED CONIFER TREE PACKAGE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low-Moderate 5000- 9000
Pinus ponderosa, Psuedotsuga menziesii, Abies conc This package is designed for the Mixed conifer forest type. It contains 21 Ponderosa pine, 14 Douglas-fir and 14 White fir. Check the individual species descriptions on the seedling list for more information on each species. Shrub package 1 contains shrub species that grow in this forest type. Pest Problems: see individual tree descriptions on seedling list Suggested Uses: reforestation, wildlife plantings, Christmas trees
Sizes: Small
*NATIVE POLLINATOR PLANTS PACKAGE varied Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Low Low-Moderate 5500- 7500
Forestiera neomexicana, Rhus trilobata, etc. Package contains 14 New Mexico Forestiera, 14 Apache Plume, 14 Skunkbush sumac, and 7 Rocky Mountain Penstemon. For specific species characteristics see individual seedling descriptions. This package plants that are preferred by our native pollinators. Pest Problems: no serious pests Suggested Uses: pollinators, erosion control, wildlife plantings
Sizes: Small
*PINON PACKAGE 1 up to 40 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate-High 3500- 8500
Pinus edulis. Quercus gambelii, etc. This package is for the Pinon woodland areas. It contains 14 Pinon, 14 Gambel oak, 14 Skunkbush sumac, and 7 Mountain mahogany. For characteristics of the individual species please look at the individual species descriptions on the seedling list. Pest Problems: various - see individual description for Pinon Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, reforestation
Sizes:
*PINON PACKAGE 2 varied Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 7000
Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, etc. Package contains 14 Pinon, 14 Apache plume, 14 Mountain mahogany, and 7 Buffaloberry, For more information on individual species please see individual seedling descriptions. Pest Problems: see individual species descriptions Suggested Uses: Erosion control, wildlife plantings, reforestation
Sizes:
*PONDEROSA PINE PACKAGE varies Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 8500
Pinus ponderosa, etc. This package is for Ponderosa pine forest type. It contains 21 Ponderosa pine, 7 Gambel oak, 7 Mountain Mahogany, 7 Skunkbush sumac, and 7 Mountain Snowberry. Refer to the seedling list for information on individual species. Pest Problems: see individual tree descriptions on seedling list Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation, wildlife plantings
Sizes:
*SHRUB PACKAGE 1 varies Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Rhus trilobata, Cercocarpus montanus, etc. This shrub package contains 14 Skunkbush sumac, 14 Mountain mahogany, 7 Wax currant and 14 Gambel oak. These species occur in the areas with Pinon/Juniper, Ponderosa pine and dry mixed conifer. See individual species descriptions on seedling list for more information on each species. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, erosion control, reclamation, windbreaks
Sizes: Small
*SHRUB PACKAGE 2 varies Moderate-Fast Good Low Moderate-High 3000- 7500
Atriplex canescens, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Certo This shrub package contains shrubs that are low water and drought tolerant. It contains 14 Winterfat, 14 Four-wing saltbush, 14 Chamisa (rubber rabbitbrush), and 7 littleleaf sumac. For more information on the individual species please refer to each species on the seedling list. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, windbreaks.
Sizes: Small
*SHRUB PACKAGE 3 varied Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Low Low 3000- 7500
Atriplex canescens, Krascheninnikovia lanata, etc. Package includes 14 winterfat, 14 four-wing saltbrush, 14 Chamisa, and 7 Mormon tea (Green ephedra). For individual species characteristics see individual seedling descriptions. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, reclamation
Sizes: Small
*WINDBREAK PACKAGE varied Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 7500
Pinus nigra, Forestiera neomexicana, Ulmus parvifo Package contains 14 Austrian pine, 14 Lacebark elm, and 21 New Mexico Forestiera. They are ideal species for windbreaks. See individual seedlings descriptions for characteristics. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: windbreaks
Sizes: Small
AFGHANISTAN PINE 60 feet Fast Poor Moderate Moderate 3000- 5500
Pinus eldarica A medium-sized tree native to southwest Asia. It forms a dense conical crown. An extensive root system gives this tree the ability to withstand drought. Plantings are best in southern New Mexico due to it not being cold hardy enough for the northern half of the state. It has a crown width of between 30 and 40 feet. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. Pest Problems: Nantucket pine tip moth, Ips bark beetle, and spider mites. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and Christmas trees.
Sizes: Small
ANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH up to 6 feet Moderate Excellent Low Low-Moderate 4000- 9000
Purshia tridentata Is an important native browse shrub that is adapted to a wide range of soils. It flowers in late spring to early summer and blossoms are yellow to white. It provides cover for small animals and birds and is used as browse by big game and livestock. It is also used for reclamation of mine sites. Calcium carbonate tolerance is high, has no salinity tolerance, and shade tolerance is intermediate. Preferred pH is 5.6 to 8.4. It is adapted to medium to coarse soils. Pest Problems: defoliators such as western tussock moth and mountain mahoghany loper Suggested Uses: wildlife browse, mine reclamation, wildlife habitat, snow fence
Sizes: Small
APACHE PLUME 4 - 6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 5000- 8000
Fallugia paradoxa This native shrub occurs along the sides of dry washes and hillsides. The rose-like white flowers are showy in the early summer with feathery clusters of plume-like fruit in the fall and winter. Provides nesting sites and material for birds. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 6 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
ARIZONA CYPRESS 40-60 feet Fast Fair Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000
Cupressus arizonica This native evergreen tree has a conical crown. It survives well in shallow, alkaline soils. It is a low maintenance tree once established. Its shape when young has suggested to some to be used for Christmas trees. It is an excellent choice for windbreak plantings. Has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.1 to 7.9. It is shade tolerant. Crown width averages 20 feet. Pest Problems: western cedar borer, cypress bark beetle, and spider mites. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, energy conservation plantings, and Christmas trees.
Sizes: Small
ARIZONA ROSEWOOD 10-18 feet Slow-Moderate Fair Low High 3000- 5000
Vauquelinia californica A native to SW New Mexico this rare evergreen species has an upright rigid shape and is found on dry, rocky hillsides and canyons. It produces clusters of white flowers in June. It is shade intolerant and cold hardy to 15 degree Fahrenheit and very heat tolerant so it is suited for the southern part of New Mexico. Attracts bees, butterflies, and birds. It has a width of 10 to 15 feet. The optimum soil pH is 6.1 to 9.0. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control and wildlife.
Sizes: Small
ARIZONA SYCAMORE 50 - 80 feet Fast Fair Moderate Moderate 4500- 6000
Platanus wrightii This attractive native tree will grow best in southern New Mexico riparian areas and was once abundant in southwest New Mexico but appears to be less common today. The bark is shaggy and white/ green. The leaves are large and maple-like in shape. It is fast growing and has a pleasing fragrance after a rain. The crown width averages 35 feet. It has moderate calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 7.5. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: soil stabilization, riparian restoration, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
ASPEN 60-80 feet Fast Excellent Moderate-High High 6500- 10000
Populus tremuloides A native tree widely distributed above 7500 feet as a pioneer species after fire or other disturbances. Its bright fall colors light up the mountains where it is plentiful. Elk and deer browse the foliage when within reach. Fall colors are from bright yellow to gold and sometimes orange/red. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.3 to 9.0. It is shade intolerant. The average crown width is 20 to 30 feet. Pest Problems: poplar borer, leaf miner, cytospora cankers, and tent caterpillar. Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, reforestation, and reclamation above 6500 feet.
Sizes: Small
AUSTRIAN PINE up to 60 feet Moderate-Fast Good Moderate Moderate 3500- 7500
Pinus nigra This fast growing pine is native to Europe, but has proved to establish and grow well in the Southwest. It tolerates a variety of soils. It is an excellent choice for a windbreak planting. Many types of birds find cover in its branches and some use the seed for food. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The average width at maturity is 25 feet. Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle, twig beetles, and pine tip moth. Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, windbreaks, and sound screens.
Sizes: Small
BIG SAGEBRUSH 2 to 15 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate 4500- 8500
Artemisia tridentata This native evergreen shrub is an important food source for deer, elk, pronghorn antelope, and bighorn sheep. It is also important to many bird species especially sage grouse. The average width is 3 to 6 feet. It is an important species for reclamation and revegetation due to its broad range and ease of establishment. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, moderate salinity tolerance, and it is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: No serious pests. Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and revegetation.
Sizes: Small
BLACK WILLOW up to 100 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 1500- 6000
Salix nigra Black willow resembles Goodding's Black willow and the two species are sometimes considered to be varieties of the same species. It occurs along streambanks and in floodplain areas. It has massive trunks that usually lean and are often divided. The crown is broad and open. Birds eat the buds and flowering catkins and deer eat the twigs and leaves. It is also commonly used as nesting habitat by small bird species. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: erosion control of streambanks, wildlife plantings
Sizes: Small
BLUE SPRUCE up to 80 feet Slow Excellent High Low-Moderate 5000- 10000
Picea pungens A native conifer that has a conical shape and will require supplemental water and generally requires some shade protection when young. The color of the foliage is from green to blue and it is often used as a Christmas tree in New Mexico. It also has value to the wood products industry. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.8. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 20 to 30 feet. Pest Problems: Douglas-fir tussock moth, needle scale, and spruce aphids. Suggested Uses: reforestation, Christmas trees, and windbreaks.
Sizes:
BLUESTEM WILLOW up to 12 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 5200- 8500
Salix irrorata This native shrub is widespread over New Mexico and occurs in thickets along rivers, creeks, and intermittent streams. It has twigs that are a striking purplish-blue color and white flowers. It has no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. The width averages 15 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, streambank stabilization and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
BUFFALOBERRY 12 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate High 4500- 7000
Shepherdia argentea This native species is found along the banks of streams or on eroded dry hillsides in northwestern New Mexico. The plant is highly important for mule deer browse and cover for nesting birds. It is a good late winter source of food for birds. The tart red fruit of this plant is used for jellies and jams. Buffaloberry needs both male and female plants to produce fruit. It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.3-8.0. The width is 10 to 12 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, jellies and jams, windbreaks, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small, Large
BUR OAK 70–80 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Moderate Moderate 0- 7500
Quercus macrocarpa This majestic oak tree is very adaptable to various soils and tolerates alkaline soils as well. It produces a large burry acorn which is edible. The fruit matures in one year. It is drought tolerant and cold hardy; Has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The average crown width is 40 feet. Optimum soil pH is 4.5 to 7.5. Pest Problems: minor problems. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and energy conservation plantings.
Sizes: Bare
CHOKECHERRY 6-20 feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate-High Low 5500- 9500
Prunus virginiana A native shrub or small tree that forms dense barriers. It prefers deep and sandy loam soils. It is an important species for wildlife as bear, deer, and other animals use it for food. It is a species that minimizes stream bank erosion. Its fruit is widely used in jellies and jams. Chokecherry is self-pollinating. It has medium calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.2 to 8.4. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width is between 10 and 20 feet. Pest Problems: borers, pear slugs, and tent caterpillar. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, riparian restoration, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
CLIFFROSE 3-10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Low-Moderate 3000- 8000
Purshia stansburiana A native shrub found on cliffs, mesas, and in washes. Usually grows on hot, dry south and west aspects. It is drought resistant. Found on rocky, limestone soils. Is an important browse species for mule deer, elk, and various bird species. Flowers are cream to yellow in color, extremely fragrant, and blooms occur from April to June. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, is drought tolerant, has low saline tolerance, and is shade intolerant. Preferred pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is adapted to medium to coarse soils. Pest Problems: Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife browse
Sizes: Small
COYOTE WILLOW 10 feet Fast Good High High 3500- 7500
Salix exigua This is one of the most common and widespread willows in New Mexico. It commonly forms thickets along streams, roadside ditches and is an important species to riparian areas. It is adapted to sandy soils in stream, river, and shoreline sites. It is heavily browsed by deer year-round. Cattle will browse it in the summer and early fall. It has low saline tolerance, intermediate shade intolerance and prefers a pH between 6 and 8.5. Pest Problems: No major pests. Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, erosion control in riparian sites and wildlife habitat
Sizes: Small
DESERT MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY up to 15 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate-High 5000- 7500
Cercocarpus breviflorus It is a native evergreen shrub that grows in rocky soils on dry slopes and mesas. It has small narrow leaves that are covered with hairs hence its other common name - hairy mountain mahogany; and tiny yellow flowers. The fruit is brown, slender, and leathery with a whitish plume-like tail at the tip. It is found in the southern and western two-thirds of the state and ranges from eastern Arizona to the Trans-Pecos of Texas. It has intermediate shade tolerance and high heat tolerance. It can grow up to fifteen feet in height and five feet in width. Pest Problems: no serious pest problems. Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
DESERT WILLOW 25 feet Fast Fair-Good Low High 3000- 6000
Chilopsis linearis A native shrub or small tree found in washes and along roadsides. This species is tolerant of poor soils and considerable drought. This deciduous plant is classified as a phreatophyte, and is an indicator that water is not too far below the surface during part of the year. The wood is often used for fence posts. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 10.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width averages 20 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, screens, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
DOUGLAS-FIR 80+ feet Moderate Excellent High Moderate 4500- 10000
Pseudotsuga menziesii A large, native tree with a dense, conical crown. The wood is one of the strongest of the soft woods. It has significant value to the wood products industry and is used extensively as a Christmas tree. This species can live for hundreds of years. It has moderate calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 20 and 30 feet. Pest Problems: Douglas-fir tussock moth, spruce budworm, and wooly aphids. Suggested Uses: reforestation (important timber species in western US), wildlife plantings, and Christmas trees.
Sizes: Small
EASTERN REDCEDAR up to 40 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000
Juniperus virginiana Native to the eastern and plains states, it forms a dense, pyramidal crown. It grows across a wide variety of soils, including those with a high water table. It is used extensively in windbreaks and in living snow fence plantings. This tree is best known for its fruit. Cones are eaten by many birds and mammals including Mourning dove, robins, turkey, squirrels, and raccoons and many other types of wildlife. It is a rugged tree and a good survivor. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.7 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 10 and 20 feet. Pest Problems: spider mites and western cedar borer. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, living snow fences, and energy conservation plantings.
Sizes: Large
ENGELMANN SPRUCE up to 120 feet Slow Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 11500
Picea engelmannii This native spruce is long-lived, and strongly resembles blue spruce. It grows on drier sites than blue spruce and has moderate watering needs. It is conical in form and has a narrow spire-like crown. Small birds and mammals use the seed as a food source. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It is shade tolerant. The crown width averages 30 feet. Pest Problems: western spruce budworm and spruce beetle. Suggested Uses: reforestation, Christmas trees, and windbreaks.
Sizes: Small
FALSE INDIGO BUSH 6-10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000
Amorpha fruticosa False indigo bush is a native shrub that grows in dense stands along streambanks, irrigation ditches, irrigated pastures, and the edges of woodlands. It has purple spire-like flowers that bloom from May to July. The nectar from the flowers attracts birds and butterflies. The leaves are pinnately compound with 11 to 15 leaflets per stem. The average width of the plant is 5 feet. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: insect gall. Suggested Uses: erosion control and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
FERNBUSH 6-8 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 3000- 7000
Chamaebatiaria millefolium This shrub has fragrant fern-like leaves. It produces an array of white flowers in the spring. The plant remains an evergreen in warm climates and becomes deciduous in colder climates. It is also very drought tolerant once established. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is 5 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
FOUR-WING SALTBUSH 4-6 feet Fast Good Low High 3000- 8000
Atriplex canescens This native shrub grows across a wide variety of soils including saline soils and is highly prized plant by the Navajos as forage for their cattle, sheep, and goats; especially in early spring when other forage is scarce. It is also an excellent wildlife species. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 9.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, erosion control, and reclamation of severely disturbed sites.
Sizes: Small
FRINGED SAGE 2 feet Fast Excellent Low Moderate 5500- 8000
Artemisia frigida Is native to most counties in New Mexico. It is drought tolerant and browsed by elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and pronghorn. It is also important to small game and nongame animals. It is also as a food plant for butterfly and moth species. It has medium saline tolerance, intermediate shade tolerance, and prefers a pH of 7.0 to 9.0. Pest Problems: none known Suggested Uses: soil stabilization and wildlife habitat
Sizes: Small
GAMBEL OAK up to 30 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 8500
Quercus gambelii A native tree or large shrub recognized by the deeply lobed leaves, which are larger than those of other Southwestern oaks. This is the only common tree oak in northern New Mexico. It is considered as good browse for deer and other wildlife. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 12 and 20 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: reclamation, wood products, erosion control, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes:
GOLDEN CURRANT 4-6 Feet Fast Good Low Low 3000- 9000
Ribes aureum A native to New Mexico in the spring the golden currant richly deserves its name - golden yellow clusters of long, trumpet-shaped, spicy fragrant flowers, adorn the shrub in abundance. The edible fruit is made into jellies and jams, and delicious pies. Golden currant is self-pollinating. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. Its shade tolerance is intermediate. The width is between 3 and 6 feet. Pest Problems: leaf rust fungus,alternate host of White Pine blister rust. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, revegetation, erosion control (in it’s native range), and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
GOODDING'S BLACK WILLOW 45-80 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 3500- 7500
Salix gooddingii This relatively abundant tree is found throughout New Mexico and is found along arroyos, streams, and rivers. Black Willow serves to minimize erosion and lessen flood damage. This species tolerates a wide range of soils as long as moisture is present. Native Americans chewed willow branches as a pain killer. Birds feed on the buds and flowers and deer eat the twigs and leaves. The tree gets its name from the dark colored bark. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is up to 40 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: streambank stabilization and riparian restoration.
Sizes: Small
HOPTREE up to 25 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4000- 9000
Ptelea trifoliata This native tree also known as wafer ash reaches up to 25 feet with a crown spread of 10 to 15 feet. The leaves are trifoliate and are four to six inches in length and turn yellow in the fall. Their flowers are inconspicuous greenish-white and have an orange blossom-like perfume. Its fruit attracts bird, squirrels and other mammals. Grows on dry, rocky slopes to valley bottoms. It has medium salinity tolerance, medium calcium carbonate tolerance, and intermediate shade tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, windbreaks
Sizes: Small
LACEBARK ELM 50 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Ulmus parvifolia Lacebark Elm, or true Chinese Elm, should not be confused for the notoriously spreading Siberian Elm. Siberian Elm is often and mistakenly called Chinese Elm. Lacebark Elm is a medium sized tree with a round to oval crown. It is a gentleman as it doesn't spread like the Siberian Elm. It is an excellent drought tolerant species for use in windbreaks. It can grow as much as 3 feet per year. It is adaptable to most soil conditions. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Resistant to elm leaf beetle and Dutch elm disease. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and firewood.
Sizes: Small
LILAC Up to 12 Feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Syringa vulgaris This violet fragrant flowered shrub grows across a wide variety of soils. Due to its growth habit, it is suitable in single or multi-row windbreaks and has high quality cover for wildlife. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, low salinity tolerance, and has intermediate shade tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 7.8. The width is between 6 and 12 feet. Pest Problems: minor problems with lilac borer, and leaf miners. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
LIMBER PINE up to 60 feet Slow Excellent Low Low 7500- 12000
Pinus flexilis This native 5-needled pine is very long-lived. It is pyramidal in shape during youth, becoming more flat-topped at maturity. The crown width is between 15 and 30 feet. The pine seeds are an excellent source of food for birds and small mammals. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 6.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance. Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, dwarf mistletoe and White Pine blister rust. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, Christmas trees, and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
LITTLE LEAF SUMAC 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate-High 4000- 8000
Rhus microphyllum A native shrub of the desert washes and valleys of southern New Mexico that has clusters of orange-red berries that provide winter food for many birds and mammals. The leaves turn a beautiful orange-red in the fall. Basket weaving was a common use of sumac branches by Native Americans. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 10 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: erosion control, windbreaks, and slope stabilization.
Sizes: Small
MANCHURIAN APRICOT 15- 20 feet Fast Excellent Moderate Moderate 2800- 7000
Prunus armeniaca var. mandshurica Small fast-growing tree. Rounded, spreading form. It is winter-hardy and moderately drought tolerant. Is native to Manchuria and Korea. Foliage is golden orange in the fall. It has pink blooms March to April. It is self-pollinating, but is more likely to produce fruit with two or more plants. Is cold hardy to USDA hardiness zone 3 and can be grown in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8. Fruit is golf-ball size. Crown width is 12 to 18 feet, bark is reddish-brown and the root system is medium in depth and spread. Requires full sun, prefers loam soils and soils pH of 6.0 to 7.5. Pest Problems: No major pest problems. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, nesting sites
Sizes: Bare
MORMON TEA (GREEN EPHEDRA) up to 5 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate 3000- 7500
Ephedra viridis This native evergreen shrub is important browse for big game. Its seeds and stem parts are used as food by many small animals and birds. It is used to restore disturbed land due to its ability to reduce erosion on both clay and sandy soils. Plants are drought tolerant and cold hardy. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, high salinity tolerance and has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 2 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY 15 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Cercocarpus montanus Mountain Mahogany is beautiful in late summer and fall, when the white tails of the fruit look like a threaded needle or a narrow delicate feather. It is a native shrub found on the limestone soils of the rolling plains and northern Trans-Pecos on rocky uplands. The leaves and twigs are browsed by elk and deer. It is an excellent species for reclamation of disturbed areas. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 8 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pest problems. Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
NANKING CHERRY 8-10 Feet Fast Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000
Prunus tomentosa Nanking Cherry is a large wide spreading shrub with rose-type leaves and beautiful showy white flowers in the spring. It can be pruned into a small tree. The fruit is edible for humans and is also relished by birds. Nanking cherry requires cross-pollination to produce fruit. The plant works well as a mass planting or informal hedge. It is very cold hardy. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 7.2. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: Tent caterpillars, black rot and pear slug. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
NARROWLEAF COTTONWOOD up to 70 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate-High Moderate 5000- 10000
Populus angustifolia This is a native tree with willow-like leaves, common along streams in the mountains of New Mexico. It represents the principal mountain Cottonwood species. It provides cover for wildlife and is a good browse species. It has high tolerance for calcium carbonate and low tolerance for salinity. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet. Pest Problems: Leaf rust, fall webworm, poplar borers Suggested Uses: Windbreaks, Wildlife plantings, erosion control and riparian restoration
Sizes:
NATIVE PLUM 6-8 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low 4500- 8000
Prunus americana This is a small native tree adapted to a wide range of soils and requires supplemental watering on dry sites until established. It produces very fragrant clusters of showy white flowers in the spring and produces a sweet edible fruit. The leaves turn an orange-red in the fall. It needs cross-pollination to produce a good fruit crop. It is cold hardy and drought tolerant once established. It is an excellent choice for wildlife plantings. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 10 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: pear slug, aphids, and powdery mildew. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
NEW MEXICO ELDERBERRY up to 25 feet Moderate-Fast Good Low Low-Moderate 6500- 9500
Sambucus cerulea var. neomexicana This is a small native tree that is common in the central and southern parts of New Mexico. The leaves are pinnately compound and opposite. It has white flowers and produces purple-black berries that can be used for jellies, pies, wine-making, etc. It provides cover, nesting sites, and food for many bird species. It is also used as browse by mule deer. It is highly drought tolerant, has medium calcium carbonate tolerance, and no salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width is up to 20 feet. The optimum soil pH is 4.9 to 7.5. Pest Problems: Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, erosion control
Sizes:
NEW MEXICO FORESTIERA 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 4000- 7500
Forestiera neomexicana Also called NM Olive or Privet, this native shrub has a broad range in New Mexico. It is widely used by birds due to the small black olive-shaped fruit it produces. It forms a dense thicket or small tree and is excellent for controlling erosion. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 8 and 12 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
NEW MEXICO LOCUST 15-25 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 8500
Robinia neomexicana This is a native tree especially useful for erosion control due to its rapid growth and thicket forming tendencies. The legumes incorporate nitrogen into the soil improving the quality of the soil. It produces showy purple flowers in the spring. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The average crown width is 15 feet. Pest Problems: minor problem with locust borer. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reclamation, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
PALMER'S PENSTEMON up to 5 feet Moderate Excellent Low Low 2600- 8200
Pestemon palmeri Native to New Mexico. It is a perennial herb to slightly wood subshrub. Has fleshy leaves and has white to pink flowers that are fragrant. It is found in dry washes, grasslands, pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. It is very drought and heat tolerant. It is shade intolerant, pH tolerance is 6.0 to 7.9, saline intolerant and prefers precipitation between 6 and 14 inches per year. Adapted to coarse and medium textured, well-drained soils. Pest Problems: Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings and erosion control
Sizes: Small
PEACHLEAF WILLOW 30 feet + Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 4500- 7400
Salix amygdaloides This native tree is found along rivers and streams in rich alluvial soils. It is readily identified by its gleaming leaves and pendulous branchlets, which gives it a weeping appearance. It is an excellent species for streambank stabilization. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is up to 40 feet. Pest Problems: None serious Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, streambank stabilization and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
PIÑON up to 40 feet Slow Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 8500
Pinus edulis The New Mexico state tree is an aromatic pine which grows across a wide variety of soils and does well under cultivation. It is popular for the edible nuts it produces. Under most conditions it is self-pollinating. It has high value for upland game and song birds. It is very drought tolerant, but slow growing. Has low calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.5. The crown width is between 20 and 30 feet. Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle, piñon needle scale, needle miner, twig beetle, and pitch moth. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation, and Christmas trees.
Sizes:
PLAINS COTTONWOOD up to 85 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 3500- 9000
Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera This cottonwood is native to the eastern plains of New Mexico and is found in moist areas and near stream banks. It is also highly drought tolerant. It is appropriate for planting east of the Pecos River. Rio Grande Cottonwood should be planted west of the Pecos River. The crown spread is 50-60 feet and the leaves are wide and triangular in shape, 3-6 inches long. They turn golden yellow in the fall. It has medium tolerance for calcium carbonate and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
PONDEROSA PINE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 9000
Pinus ponderosa This is a large, native conifer. It is the primary commercial tree species in New Mexico. It has a pyramidal shape when young and becomes conical with age. Squirrels clip the cones and store them in caches and extract the seeds for winter consumption. The tree grows best on well-drained soils. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 25 and 30 feet. Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, sawflies and dwarf mistletoe. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
PRAIRIE SKY POPLAR 50 - 80 feet Fast Excellent High Moderate 4000- 8000
Populus x. canadensis This is a tall, narrow crowned tree with a crown spread of 8 to 10 feet with deep green foliage that is an alternative to Lombardy poplar. It has a lifespan of 40+ years and is suggested for use in windbreaks. It has a very fast growth rate that can be up to 4 feet per year. It is disease resistant and has yellow fall color. The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. Pest Problems: Suggested Uses: windbreaks.
Sizes: Bare
ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER up to 40 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 9000
Juniperus scopulorum This is a hardy native tree that grows across a wide variety of soils. It is the fastest growing of southwestern junipers and can be found along mountain streams and dry, rocky slopes. The pea size blue-berries are an important source of food for birds and small mammals. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. It has a crown width of between 10 and 20 feet. Pest Problems: juniper bark beetle, spider mites, western cedar borer, and juniper mistletoe. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, reforestation, and erosion control.
Sizes: Large
ROCKY MOUNTAIN PENSTEMON up to 3 feet Moderate Excellent Low Low 6000- 11000
Penstemon strictus Is a native perennial herb with deep blue to purple flowers. It is used for erosion control and forage for deer, antelope and birds. It is shade intolerant, prefers well-drained soils, and blooms May through July. The preferred pH is 6.0-8.0, it has low calcium carbonate tolerance, no salinity tolerance, and has moderate drought tolerance. Pest Problems: None noted. Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife forage
Sizes: Small
RUBBER RABBITBRUSH (CHAMISA) 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Low 3000- 7500
Chrysothamnus nauseosus This is a native shrub which grows well on disturbed sites and in alkaline soils. In the fall Chamisa becomes very conspicuous. Its yellow flower clusters brighten up the roadside and other disturbed areas. The foliage and seeds are eaten by browsing animals and rabbits. It has medium calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.6 to 8.6. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 2 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: Leaf beetle, no other major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control and reclamation.
Sizes: Small
SCOTS PINE (SCOTCH PINE) up to 50 feet Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7500
Pinus sylvestris A native of Europe, the irregular pyramidal crown develops into a broad crown with age. The crown width is between 20 and 35 feet. It is widely planted for Christmas trees in many parts of the U.S. It is considered a good tree for reclamation because it often seeds itself into the site. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum pH is 5.0 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle and pine needle scale. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, Christmas trees, and energy conservation plantings.
Sizes: Small
SERVICEBERRY 6 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 5000- 9000
Amelanchier alnifolia This native species is a medium to tall deciduous shrub. The stems are maroon in color and it produces showy white flowers in the spring. Fall colors are yellow and orange/red. The fruit is purple-black when ripe, edible and very tasty. Serviceberry is self-pollinating. It is an excellent wildlife species. It inhabits banks, slopes, and mountains in mesic areas. Has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 8.4. The width is 15 feet. Pest Problems: None known to be serious. Suggested Uses: Erosion control and wildlife plantings
Sizes: Large
SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL up to 4 feet Slow Good-Excellent Low Moderate 6500- 11500
Potentilla fruticosa Native drought tolerant shrub that has small yellow 5-petalled blossoms that are present from June through September It is attractive to butterflies and is also forage for mule deer. This shrub is also known by the name Potentilla. The bark is brown and shreddy in color. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance, but prefers full sun. The width is between 2 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and windbreaks.
Sizes: Small
SKUNKBUSH SUMAC 4-6 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate-High 4500- 8000
Rhus trilobata Skunkbush sumac is a deciduous, multi-branched and spreading shrub. It occurs along stream banks and forest openings but is most common and abundant on dry, rocky slopes throughout Arizona and New Mexico at elevations from 3500 to 8000 feet. This shrub is very winter hardy and tolerant of drought and high alkali soils. The fruits are red-orange and the flowers are yellowish and conspicuously in clusters. Besides having brilliant orange-red fall colors it is an important fall and winter food for songbirds and emergency food for game birds. This species is also an important browse species for mule deer. Clusters of small yellow flowers bloom in late May and produce a small red edible fruit. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.2. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 6 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Bare, Small
SMOOTH SUMAC 10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000
Rhus glabra This native shrub is extremely drought resistant and the leaves turn a bright red in the fall. More than thirty bird species and deer use the fruit as winter food. It serves as good ground cover for small mammals. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.3 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 10 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: reclamation, erosion control and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
SOUTHWESTERN WHITE PINE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low 4500- 10000
Pinus strobiformis A large native tree, that grows well in a forest environment. It has edible seeds, similar though smaller than those of piñon. It is very graceful and the needles are soft and wispy. Its blue-green foliage makes it a formal-looking tree when young. The width is between 20 and 30 feet. The optimum soil pH is 4.5 to 6.8. NOT RECOMMENED FOR SOUTHEAST NEW MEXICO (CAPITANS, SACRAMENTO AND WHITE MOUNTAINS) DUE TO WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST. Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, dwarf mistletoe and White Pine blister rust. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, Christmas trees, and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
TORREY'S WOLFBERRY up to 10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 5500
Lycium torreyi Native shrub that is found in the major river drainages at lower elevations. It has dark reddish brown stems with thorns and flowers are light purple. It has bright red berries. It can grow in sandy soils, is tolerant of saline soils and has high calcium carbonate tolerance. It is a source of food for small birds and mammals. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat and browse, erosion control
Sizes: Small
WAX CURRANT 4-6 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 13000
Ribes cereum This attractive fragrant native shrub produces pink flowers in the spring and red fruit in the late summer. This plant is abundant over rocky slopes and in dry and open woods. It does well in areas of limited precipitation. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.5-7.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 3 and 5 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and erosion control
Sizes: Bare, Small
WHITE FIR up to 80 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Moderate-High Low 5000- 10000
Abies concolor This native conifer, is widely used as a Christmas tree in New Mexico. It has a conical shape which becomes irregular with age. It is also a notable commercial species for the wood products industry in New Mexico. The needles are silvery blue and cones are olive-green to purple. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.8. It is shade tolerant. The width is between 15 and 30 feet. Pest Problems: spruce budworm, Douglas-fir tussock moth, bark beetles, aphids and dwarf mistletoe. Suggested Uses: Christmas trees and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
WINTERFAT 3–4 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000
Ceratoides lanata Winterfat is a hardy, native half-shrub with a wide range throughout New Mexico. It grows on dry, well-drained soils, 3000 - 8000 feet in elevation, and can tolerate saline or alkaline soils. It is superior winter forage for livestock and used extensively by wildlife. The seed heads in the fall give the plant a pleasing silvery appearance. The long white fuzzy plumes give it another name: "Lambs Tail". It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The average width is 3 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: erosion control, range improvement, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
WOODS ROSE 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 9000
Rosa woodsii This hardy shrub produces showy pink flowers in the spring and has beautiful orange-red fall color. It is excellent cover for grouse and other fowl. Big game animals readily graze them when present in winter range. It is a good soil stabilizer. It has low calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.0-8.0. Its shade tolerance is intermediate. The width is between 3 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: leaf cutter bees. Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, and windbreaks.
Sizes: Bare
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