New Mexico State Forestry Conservation Seedling Program

Seedling List

Seedlings offered by the New Mexico State Forestry Division

For more information, or to order the seedling, click on the seedling's name.

SPECIES HEIGHT GROWTH RATE COLD HARDINESS WATER NEEDS ALKALINITY TOLERANCE ELEVATION
*SHRUB PACKAGE 2 varies Moderate-Fast Good Low Moderate-High 3000- 7500
Atriplex canescens, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Certo This shrub package contains shrubs that are low water and drought tolerant. It contains 14 Winterfat, 14 Four-wing saltbush, 14 Chamisa (rubber rabbitbrush), and 7 littleleaf sumac. For more information on the individual species please refer to each species on the seedling list. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, windbreaks.
Sizes: Small
*SHRUB PACKAGE 3 varied Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Low Low 3000- 7500
Atriplex canescens, Krascheninnikovia lanata, etc. Package includes 14 winterfat, 14 four-wing saltbrush, 14 Chamisa, and 7 Mormon tea (Green ephedra). For individual species characteristics see individual seedling descriptions. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: erosion control, wildlife plantings, reclamation
Sizes: Small
*WINDBREAK PACKAGE varied Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 7500
Pinus nigra, Forestiera neomexicana, Ulmus parvifo Package contains 14 Austrian pine, 14 Lacebark elm, and 21 New Mexico Forestiera. They are ideal species for windbreaks. See individual seedlings descriptions for characteristics. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: windbreaks
Sizes: Small
AFGHANISTAN PINE 60 feet Fast Poor Moderate Moderate 3000- 5500
Pinus eldarica A medium-sized tree native to southwest Asia. It forms a dense conical crown. An extensive root system gives this tree the ability to withstand drought. Plantings are best in southern New Mexico due to it not being cold hardy enough for the northern half of the state. It has a crown width of between 30 and 40 feet. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. Pest Problems: Nantucket pine tip moth, Ips bark beetle, and spider mites. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and Christmas trees.
Sizes: Small
ANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH up to 6 feet Moderate Excellent Low Low-Moderate 4000- 9000
Purshia tridentata Is an important native browse shrub that is adapted to a wide range of soils. It flowers in late spring to early summer and blossoms are yellow to white. It provides cover for small animals and birds and is used as browse by big game and livestock. It is also used for reclamation of mine sites. Calcium carbonate tolerance is high, has no salinity tolerance, and shade tolerance is intermediate. Preferred pH is 5.6 to 8.4. It is adapted to medium to coarse soils. Pest Problems: defoliators such as western tussock moth and mountain mahoghany loper Suggested Uses: wildlife browse, mine reclamation, wildlife habitat, snow fence
Sizes: Small
APACHE PLUME 4 - 6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 5000- 8000
Fallugia paradoxa This native shrub occurs along the sides of dry washes and hillsides. The rose-like white flowers are showy in the early summer with feathery clusters of plume-like fruit in the fall and winter. Provides nesting sites and material for birds. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 6 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
ARIZONA CYPRESS 40-60 feet Fast Fair Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000
Cupressus arizonica This native evergreen tree has a conical crown. It survives well in shallow, alkaline soils. It is a low maintenance tree once established. Its shape when young has suggested to some to be used for Christmas trees. It is an excellent choice for windbreak plantings. Has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.1 to 7.9. It is shade tolerant. Crown width averages 20 feet. Pest Problems: western cedar borer, cypress bark beetle, and spider mites. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, energy conservation plantings, and Christmas trees.
Sizes: Small
AUSTRIAN PINE up to 60 feet Moderate-Fast Good Moderate Moderate 3500- 7500
Pinus nigra This fast growing pine is native to Europe, but has proved to establish and grow well in the Southwest. It tolerates a variety of soils. It is an excellent choice for a windbreak planting. Many types of birds find cover in its branches and some use the seed for food. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The average width at maturity is 25 feet. Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle, twig beetles, and pine tip moth. Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, windbreaks, and sound screens.
Sizes: Small
BIG SAGEBRUSH 2 to 15 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate 4500- 8500
Artemisia tridentata This native evergreen shrub is an important food source for deer, elk, pronghorn antelope, and bighorn sheep. It is also important to many bird species especially sage grouse. The average width is 3 to 6 feet. It is an important species for reclamation and revegetation due to its broad range and ease of establishment. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, moderate salinity tolerance, and it is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: No serious pests. Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and revegetation.
Sizes: Small
BLACK WILLOW up to 100 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 1500- 6000
Salix nigra Black willow resembles Goodding's Black willow and the two species are sometimes considered to be varieties of the same species. It occurs along streambanks and in floodplain areas. It has massive trunks that usually lean and are often divided. The crown is broad and open. Birds eat the buds and flowering catkins and deer eat the twigs and leaves. It is also commonly used as nesting habitat by small bird species. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: erosion control of streambanks, wildlife plantings
Sizes: Small
BLUESTEM WILLOW up to 12 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 5200- 8500
Salix irrorata This native shrub is widespread over New Mexico and occurs in thickets along rivers, creeks, and intermittent streams. It has twigs that are a striking purplish-blue color and white flowers. It has no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. The width averages 15 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, streambank stabilization and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
BUFFALOBERRY 12 feet Slow-Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate High 4500- 7000
Shepherdia argentea This native species is found along the banks of streams or on eroded dry hillsides in northwestern New Mexico. The plant is highly important for mule deer browse and cover for nesting birds. It is a good late winter source of food for birds. The tart red fruit of this plant is used for jellies and jams. Buffaloberry needs both male and female plants to produce fruit. It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. It has intermediate shade tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.3-8.0. The width is 10 to 12 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: wildlife plantings, jellies and jams, windbreaks, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small, Large
COYOTE WILLOW 10 feet Fast Good High High 3500- 7500
Salix exigua This is one of the most common and widespread willows in New Mexico. It commonly forms thickets along streams, roadside ditches and is an important species to riparian areas. It is adapted to sandy soils in stream, river, and shoreline sites. It is heavily browsed by deer year-round. Cattle will browse it in the summer and early fall. It has low saline tolerance, intermediate shade intolerance and prefers a pH between 6 and 8.5. Pest Problems: No major pests. Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, erosion control in riparian sites and wildlife habitat
Sizes: Small
DESERT MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY up to 15 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate-High 5000- 7500
Cercocarpus breviflorus It is a native evergreen shrub that grows in rocky soils on dry slopes and mesas. It has small narrow leaves that are covered with hairs hence its other common name - hairy mountain mahogany; and tiny yellow flowers. The fruit is brown, slender, and leathery with a whitish plume-like tail at the tip. It is found in the southern and western two-thirds of the state and ranges from eastern Arizona to the Trans-Pecos of Texas. It has intermediate shade tolerance and high heat tolerance. It can grow up to fifteen feet in height and five feet in width. Pest Problems: no serious pest problems. Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
DESERT WILLOW 25 feet Fast Fair-Good Low High 3000- 6000
Chilopsis linearis A native shrub or small tree found in washes and along roadsides. This species is tolerant of poor soils and considerable drought. This deciduous plant is classified as a phreatophyte, and is an indicator that water is not too far below the surface during part of the year. The wood is often used for fence posts. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 10.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The crown width averages 20 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control, screens, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
EASTERN REDCEDAR up to 40 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000
Juniperus virginiana Native to the eastern and plains states, it forms a dense, pyramidal crown. It grows across a wide variety of soils, including those with a high water table. It is used extensively in windbreaks and in living snow fence plantings. This tree is best known for its fruit. Cones are eaten by many birds and mammals including Mourning dove, robins, turkey, squirrels, and raccoons and many other types of wildlife. It is a rugged tree and a good survivor. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.7 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 10 and 20 feet. Pest Problems: spider mites and western cedar borer. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, living snow fences, and energy conservation plantings.
Sizes: Large
ENGELMANN SPRUCE up to 120 feet Slow Excellent Moderate Moderate 5000- 11500
Picea engelmannii This native spruce is long-lived, and strongly resembles blue spruce. It grows on drier sites than blue spruce and has moderate watering needs. It is conical in form and has a narrow spire-like crown. Small birds and mammals use the seed as a food source. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It is shade tolerant. The crown width averages 30 feet. Pest Problems: western spruce budworm and spruce beetle. Suggested Uses: reforestation, Christmas trees, and windbreaks.
Sizes: Small
FALSE INDIGO BUSH 6-10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7000
Amorpha fruticosa False indigo bush is a native shrub that grows in dense stands along streambanks, irrigation ditches, irrigated pastures, and the edges of woodlands. It has purple spire-like flowers that bloom from May to July. The nectar from the flowers attracts birds and butterflies. The leaves are pinnately compound with 11 to 15 leaflets per stem. The average width of the plant is 5 feet. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: insect gall. Suggested Uses: erosion control and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
FERNBUSH 6-8 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 3000- 7000
Chamaebatiaria millefolium This shrub has fragrant fern-like leaves. It produces an array of white flowers in the spring. The plant remains an evergreen in warm climates and becomes deciduous in colder climates. It is also very drought tolerant once established. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is 5 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
FOUR-WING SALTBUSH 4-6 feet Fast Good Low High 3000- 8000
Atriplex canescens This native shrub grows across a wide variety of soils including saline soils and is highly prized plant by the Navajos as forage for their cattle, sheep, and goats; especially in early spring when other forage is scarce. It is also an excellent wildlife species. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and high salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 9.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 4 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, erosion control, and reclamation of severely disturbed sites.
Sizes: Small
FRINGED SAGE 2 feet Fast Excellent Low Moderate 5500- 8000
Artemisia frigida Is native to most counties in New Mexico. It is drought tolerant and browsed by elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and pronghorn. It is also important to small game and nongame animals. It is also as a food plant for butterfly and moth species. It has medium saline tolerance, intermediate shade tolerance, and prefers a pH of 7.0 to 9.0. Pest Problems: none known Suggested Uses: soil stabilization and wildlife habitat
Sizes: Small
GOLDEN CURRANT 4-6 Feet Fast Good Low Low 3000- 9000
Ribes aureum A native to New Mexico in the spring the golden currant richly deserves its name - golden yellow clusters of long, trumpet-shaped, spicy fragrant flowers, adorn the shrub in abundance. The edible fruit is made into jellies and jams, and delicious pies. Golden currant is self-pollinating. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. Its shade tolerance is intermediate. The width is between 3 and 6 feet. Pest Problems: leaf rust fungus,alternate host of White Pine blister rust. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, revegetation, erosion control (in it’s native range), and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
GOODDING'S BLACK WILLOW 45-80 feet Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 3500- 7500
Salix gooddingii This relatively abundant tree is found throughout New Mexico and is found along arroyos, streams, and rivers. Black Willow serves to minimize erosion and lessen flood damage. This species tolerates a wide range of soils as long as moisture is present. Native Americans chewed willow branches as a pain killer. Birds feed on the buds and flowers and deer eat the twigs and leaves. The tree gets its name from the dark colored bark. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is up to 40 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Suggested Uses: streambank stabilization and riparian restoration.
Sizes: Small
HOPTREE up to 25 feet Slow-Moderate Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4000- 9000
Ptelea trifoliata This native tree also known as wafer ash reaches up to 25 feet with a crown spread of 10 to 15 feet. The leaves are trifoliate and are four to six inches in length and turn yellow in the fall. Their flowers are inconspicuous greenish-white and have an orange blossom-like perfume. Its fruit attracts bird, squirrels and other mammals. Grows on dry, rocky slopes to valley bottoms. It has medium salinity tolerance, medium calcium carbonate tolerance, and intermediate shade tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, windbreaks
Sizes: Small
LACEBARK ELM 50 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low-Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Ulmus parvifolia Lacebark Elm, or true Chinese Elm, should not be confused for the notoriously spreading Siberian Elm. Siberian Elm is often and mistakenly called Chinese Elm. Lacebark Elm is a medium sized tree with a round to oval crown. It is a gentleman as it doesn't spread like the Siberian Elm. It is an excellent drought tolerant species for use in windbreaks. It can grow as much as 3 feet per year. It is adaptable to most soil conditions. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 4.8 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet. Pest Problems: none serious. Resistant to elm leaf beetle and Dutch elm disease. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and firewood.
Sizes: Small
LILAC Up to 12 Feet Moderate-Fast Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Syringa vulgaris This violet fragrant flowered shrub grows across a wide variety of soils. Due to its growth habit, it is suitable in single or multi-row windbreaks and has high quality cover for wildlife. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, low salinity tolerance, and has intermediate shade tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 7.8. The width is between 6 and 12 feet. Pest Problems: minor problems with lilac borer, and leaf miners. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
LIMBER PINE up to 60 feet Slow Excellent Low Low 7500- 12000
Pinus flexilis This native 5-needled pine is very long-lived. It is pyramidal in shape during youth, becoming more flat-topped at maturity. The crown width is between 15 and 30 feet. The pine seeds are an excellent source of food for birds and small mammals. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 6.5. It has intermediate shade tolerance. Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, dwarf mistletoe and White Pine blister rust. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, Christmas trees, and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
LITTLE LEAF SUMAC 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate-High 4000- 8000
Rhus microphyllum A native shrub of the desert washes and valleys of southern New Mexico that has clusters of orange-red berries that provide winter food for many birds and mammals. The leaves turn a beautiful orange-red in the fall. Basket weaving was a common use of sumac branches by Native Americans. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 10 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: erosion control, windbreaks, and slope stabilization.
Sizes: Small
MORMON TEA (GREEN EPHEDRA) up to 5 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate 3000- 7500
Ephedra viridis This native evergreen shrub is important browse for big game. Its seeds and stem parts are used as food by many small animals and birds. It is used to restore disturbed land due to its ability to reduce erosion on both clay and sandy soils. Plants are drought tolerant and cold hardy. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance, high salinity tolerance and has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 2 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: Wildlife habitat and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY 15 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 4500- 8000
Cercocarpus montanus Mountain Mahogany is beautiful in late summer and fall, when the white tails of the fruit look like a threaded needle or a narrow delicate feather. It is a native shrub found on the limestone soils of the rolling plains and northern Trans-Pecos on rocky uplands. The leaves and twigs are browsed by elk and deer. It is an excellent species for reclamation of disturbed areas. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 8 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pest problems. Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat, and erosion control.
Sizes: Small
NANKING CHERRY 8-10 Feet Fast Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000
Prunus tomentosa Nanking Cherry is a large wide spreading shrub with rose-type leaves and beautiful showy white flowers in the spring. It can be pruned into a small tree. The fruit is edible for humans and is also relished by birds. Nanking cherry requires cross-pollination to produce fruit. The plant works well as a mass planting or informal hedge. It is very cold hardy. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.7 to 7.2. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 6 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: Tent caterpillars, black rot and pear slug. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
NATIVE PLUM 6-8 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Low 4500- 8000
Prunus americana This is a small native tree adapted to a wide range of soils and requires supplemental watering on dry sites until established. It produces very fragrant clusters of showy white flowers in the spring and produces a sweet edible fruit. The leaves turn an orange-red in the fall. It needs cross-pollination to produce a good fruit crop. It is cold hardy and drought tolerant once established. It is an excellent choice for wildlife plantings. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and low salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 10 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: pear slug, aphids, and powdery mildew. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Bare
NEW MEXICO FORESTIERA 8-10 feet Moderate Good Low Moderate 4000- 7500
Forestiera neomexicana Also called NM Olive or Privet, this native shrub has a broad range in New Mexico. It is widely used by birds due to the small black olive-shaped fruit it produces. It forms a dense thicket or small tree and is excellent for controlling erosion. It has high calcium carbonate tolerance and medium salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 7.0 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 8 and 12 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes:
PEACHLEAF WILLOW 30 feet + Fast Good-Excellent High Moderate 4500- 7400
Salix amygdaloides This native tree is found along rivers and streams in rich alluvial soils. It is readily identified by its gleaming leaves and pendulous branchlets, which gives it a weeping appearance. It is an excellent species for streambank stabilization. It has medium calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 8.0. It is shade intolerant. The width is up to 40 feet. Pest Problems: None serious Suggested Uses: Riparian restoration, streambank stabilization and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
PLAINS COTTONWOOD up to 85 feet Fast Excellent High Low-Moderate 3500- 9000
Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera This cottonwood is native to the eastern plains of New Mexico and is found in moist areas and near stream banks. It is also highly drought tolerant. It is appropriate for planting east of the Pecos River. Rio Grande Cottonwood should be planted west of the Pecos River. The crown spread is 50-60 feet and the leaves are wide and triangular in shape, 3-6 inches long. They turn golden yellow in the fall. It has medium tolerance for calcium carbonate and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 7.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 30 and 40 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes:
PONDEROSA PINE up to 80 feet Moderate Excellent Moderate Moderate-High 4500- 9000
Pinus ponderosa This is a large, native conifer. It is the primary commercial tree species in New Mexico. It has a pyramidal shape when young and becomes conical with age. Squirrels clip the cones and store them in caches and extract the seeds for winter consumption. The tree grows best on well-drained soils. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.0 to 9.0. It is shade intolerant. The crown width is between 25 and 30 feet. Pest Problems: bark beetle, twig beetle, sawflies and dwarf mistletoe. Suggested Uses: windbreaks and reforestation.
Sizes: Small
PRAIRIE SKY POPLAR 50 - 80 feet Fast Excellent High Moderate 4000- 8000
Populus x. canadensis This is a tall, narrow crowned tree with a crown spread of 8 to 10 feet with deep green foliage that is an alternative to Lombardy poplar. It has a lifespan of 40+ years and is suggested for use in windbreaks. It has a very fast growth rate that can be up to 4 feet per year. It is disease resistant and has yellow fall color. The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 7.5. Pest Problems: Suggested Uses: windbreaks.
Sizes: Bare
RUBBER RABBITBRUSH (CHAMISA) 4-6 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Low 3000- 7500
Chrysothamnus nauseosus This is a native shrub which grows well on disturbed sites and in alkaline soils. In the fall Chamisa becomes very conspicuous. Its yellow flower clusters brighten up the roadside and other disturbed areas. The foliage and seeds are eaten by browsing animals and rabbits. It has medium calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.6 to 8.6. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 2 and 4 feet. Pest Problems: Leaf beetle, no other major pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, erosion control and reclamation.
Sizes: Small
SCOTS PINE (SCOTCH PINE) up to 50 feet Moderate-Fast Good-Excellent Moderate Moderate 3000- 7500
Pinus sylvestris A native of Europe, the irregular pyramidal crown develops into a broad crown with age. The crown width is between 20 and 35 feet. It is widely planted for Christmas trees in many parts of the U.S. It is considered a good tree for reclamation because it often seeds itself into the site. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum pH is 5.0 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. Pest Problems: Ips bark beetle and pine needle scale. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, Christmas trees, and energy conservation plantings.
Sizes: Small
SKUNKBUSH SUMAC 4-6 feet Moderate Excellent Low Moderate-High 4500- 8000
Rhus trilobata Skunkbush sumac is a deciduous, multi-branched and spreading shrub. It occurs along stream banks and forest openings but is most common and abundant on dry, rocky slopes throughout Arizona and New Mexico at elevations from 3500 to 8000 feet. This shrub is very winter hardy and tolerant of drought and high alkali soils. The fruits are red-orange and the flowers are yellowish and conspicuously in clusters. Besides having brilliant orange-red fall colors it is an important fall and winter food for songbirds and emergency food for game birds. This species is also an important browse species for mule deer. Clusters of small yellow flowers bloom in late May and produce a small red edible fruit. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. Optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 8.2. It has intermediate shade tolerance. The width is between 6 and 8 feet. Pest Problems: no serious pests. Suggested Uses: windbreaks, wildlife plantings, and erosion control.
Sizes: Bare, Small
SMOOTH SUMAC 10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate 5000- 8000
Rhus glabra This native shrub is extremely drought resistant and the leaves turn a bright red in the fall. More than thirty bird species and deer use the fruit as winter food. It serves as good ground cover for small mammals. It has low calcium carbonate tolerance and no salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 5.3 to 7.5. It is shade intolerant. The width is between 10 and 15 feet. Pest Problems: None serious. Suggested Uses: reclamation, erosion control and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
TORREY'S WOLFBERRY up to 10 feet Moderate Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3500- 5500
Lycium torreyi Native shrub that is found in the major river drainages at lower elevations. It has dark reddish brown stems with thorns and flowers are light purple. It has bright red berries. It can grow in sandy soils, is tolerant of saline soils and has high calcium carbonate tolerance. It is a source of food for small birds and mammals. Pest Problems: none serious Suggested Uses: wildlife habitat and browse, erosion control
Sizes: Small
WINTERFAT 3–4 feet Fast Good-Excellent Low Moderate-High 3000- 8000
Ceratoides lanata Winterfat is a hardy, native half-shrub with a wide range throughout New Mexico. It grows on dry, well-drained soils, 3000 - 8000 feet in elevation, and can tolerate saline or alkaline soils. It is superior winter forage for livestock and used extensively by wildlife. The seed heads in the fall give the plant a pleasing silvery appearance. The long white fuzzy plumes give it another name: "Lambs Tail". It has high calcium carbonate and salinity tolerance. The optimum soil pH is 6.6 to 8.5. It is shade intolerant. The average width is 3 feet. Pest Problems: no major pests. Suggested Uses: erosion control, range improvement, and wildlife plantings.
Sizes: Small
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